How do people learn second languages? What is the best way to teach second languages? Many teachers recognize that to make informed decisions about instruction, they need to integrate professional wisdom with the best available information from research on how second languages are learned and the factors that influence the process. Similarities and differences between first language (L1) and second language (L2). 10), motivation for learning a second language may arise from the following situations: “•Invasion or conquest of one’s country by speakers of another language; A need or desire to contact speakers of…. Phonation and vocabulary development: The language skills are found to be more advanced in children who shared reading experiences from 14 months of age. It will deal with key issues and both internal and external factors in child and adult language acquisition of one or more than one language (L1, L2, 2L1s, 2L1, L3, L3+), in a variety of multilingual contexts. POLITICAL Hospitality industry, in specification Hotels are of course affected by political factors, such as negatively or positively. Declines in revenues from legacy wireline services, Vrio, domestic video and wireless equipment were more than offset by the addition of. 4 Meaning of the Results 30 3. 2 Social factors that may affect Second Language Acquisition Saville-Troike (2006:94) claims that the question of why some learners are more successful than others leads to the examination of differences in the learners themselves, such as social. John Schumann' s work in this area has singled out one section of the temporal lobes of the human brain, the amygdala , as a major player in the. This was not always the case, at least not in the United States. Second, non-native input may support bilingual language acquisition, but to a lesser extent that native input does. Chapter Two Current Survey Research 12 2. A volume on second-language acquisition theory and pedagogy is, at the same time, a mark of progress and a bit of an anomaly. Language Acquisition Questions and Answers - Discover the eNotes. O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. There are many general factors that influence second language learning such as age, aptitude, intelligence, cognitive style, attitudes, motivation, and personality (Ellis, 1994). Since the factors like physical, psychology, exhaustion, family factors, school factors, social factor, etc. Vivian Cook Other on-line writings Second Language Acquisition Multi-competence. The age of the learner influences his language acquisition abilities (Freeman, 2014). Gass and Selinker take a multidisciplinary approach to adult second language acquisition (SLA), in which insights and research material from several perspectives, primarily linguistics. Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition The following factors affect second language acquisition. learning something. ), education levels and personal experiences. Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics/ Canadian Linguistics Association Joint Plenary Talk, London, Ontario. doc), PDF File (. Self-esteem is a term used in psycohology to reflect a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. and motivating factors. Many popular beliefs about second language acquisition are perpetuated in our society. Announces Fiscal 2020 Second Quarter Results - Reported Net sales increased 5. Learners with high integrative motivation tend to be interested in learning a foreign language in order to make friends with other speakers of a language to travel where the particular language is spoken, and in general are keen on learning more about the cultures that spawn the second language. We all acquire language the same way. The factors that influence the acquisition of a second language Introduction Some students learn a new language more quickly and easily than others. These individual, social, and societal factors are considered from the perspective of the language, the learner, and the learning process. LANGUAGE, VOLUME 79, NUMBER 2 (2003) proaches to the study of SLA, examining the competition model, the monitor model, alternative modes of knowledge representation, and connectionism. Second, the motivated individual wants to achieve a goal. These individual, social, and societal factors can be considered from the perspective of the language, the learner, and the learning process. So this might surprise you, but one of the most amazing feats you'll ever accomplish as a human being already happened, and that is language development. Part III:Input: External Factors. The greatest factor that contributes to a student's. APLNG 482 Introduction to Applied Linguistics (3) (IL)This is a survey course concerned with the application of theories of language to issues in the areas of psycholinguistics, philosophy of language, anthropological linguistics, sociolinguistics, bi/multilingualism, second language acquisition, and second language teaching. 2 Foreign Language Study versus Second Language Acquisition 2 1. Early language acquisition: Cracking the speech code. Learner-external factors The study of learner-external factors in SLA is primarily concerned with the question: How do learners get information about the target language? Study has focused on the effects of different kinds of input, and on the impact of the social context. Language external and language internal factors in the acquisition of gender: the case of Albanian-Greek and English-Greek bilingual children. They just learn differently than children, and success is more dependent on aptitude, motivation, and other factors. Thus, it provides a framework for the evaluation and research of motivation in language learning within mixed method studies that can be used to support the kinds of studies needed to research motivation in second language learning. Chapter Two Current Survey Research 12 2. specified minimal exposure to language. The progress is shown by the fact that the two disciplines have established themselves as areas of study not only distinct from each other, but also different from linguistic theory. The research interest in the nature of language ability is shared by the language testing community, whereas understanding the factors that affect language. 0 million driven by organic growth of 2. A 2009 study done by Elizabeth Pungello, et. ISSN 1470­1545 doi:. Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition Second Language Acquisition. After a very brief overview of SLA research findings concerning both route and rate of L2 development, theoretical models. This interdisciplinary symposium focuses on the interplay of these factors from linguistic, psychological, and sociological perspectives. Let me establish one premise before I get into the nitty-gritty details. Spoken language: Effects of shared reading have been studied in relation to receptive and expressive language development. Socioeconomics and Race. The process is the same even though you can learn a langauge in a different number of ways. Stefanson, Tara O. Specific social factors that can affect second language acquisition include age, gender, social class, and ethnic identity. Key Issues in Second Language Acquisition since the 1990s Shuangshuang Wang Shandong Normal University, Jinan, China Abstract—The research field of the second language acquisition has been increasingly widened in recent years, and emerged various kinds of new theories. Particular attention is paid to learning context as an affecting factor via an exploration of which of the other factors predict CS effectiveness development in each of the contexts under study. FACTORS AFFECTING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Learning is the process of acquiring the knowledge and skill in specific field. Positive factors exist. The study showed that there was a greater influence from socioeconomic factors. It is concluded that vocabulary acquisition models and strategies are something external, what really works upon vocabulary acquisition is the intermediary system of cognition including the knowledge structure and…. Cummins (1984) described the interplay between everyday language skills and more advanced communication skills. 7%, excluding discrete tax benefit items of $9. Factors affecting the learning of a second-language. The effects of above mentioned factors differ in male and female learners. There are many general factors that influence second language learning such as age, aptitude, intelligence, cognitive style, attitudes, motivation, and personality (Ellis, 1994). There may be several factors that combine. Internal factors affecting second language acquisition The meaning of things being communicated is more important for second language acquisition than their form. Acquisition definition, the act of acquiring or gaining possession: the acquisition of real estate. This study used the L2-Motivational Self System as the basis for a conceptual framework for studying the effects of external factors on. demonstrating knowledge of cognitive and physical variables that affect an English Language Learner's second language acquisition (e. , Mar 2018 , In : Linguistics and Literature Studies. The Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Language Acquisition By: Kelley Urbano What is the Behaviorist Perspective? Is there anyway we as educators can help this situation? The behavorist perspective theorizes that language is acquired in the same way we learn any other behavior. Core Course Descriptions Second Language Acquisition: Theories and Research (82-783) [9 units] The course will also examine the impact of internal and external factors on second language acquisition and development. 1 summarizes the five stages of language acquisition and shows some appropriate prompts and sample questions to use for each stage of second language acquisition. Acquiring ASL or written English is like any other language acquisition--there are a lot of external factors at play. Some classifications are quite precise and up to the point (Yorio, 1976. Factors Affecting Acquisition Of English As A Second Language 1026 Words | 5 Pages. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Daniel Madrid (University of Granada) 1. After carrying out my research, I discovered that the personal growth a student undergoes while abroad positively affects their second language acquisition. However, there are many factors, aside from age-related ability, that account for the apparent ease with which young children often appear to 'pick up' a new language relatively easily. These factors affect the learner's day to day survival, and derivatively, the ability to concentrate on learning. This study investigated how various child-internal and child-external factors predict English L2 children's acquisition outcomes for vocabulary size and accuracy with verb morphology. Internal/ Individual B. If a syntactic construction in language A allows more than one grammatical analysis, and language B allows one of these options, then CLI is predicted. Another touches the trunk and says. Language development and literacy This topic aims to help understand the close link between learning to talk and learning to read, their importance in children’s intellectual development, the learning mechanisms involved and the external factors that influence them, and signs that could indicate a learning disability. This book makes a major contribution to the field of instructed second language learning. 2 Speaking 10 2. However, there are many factors, aside from age-related ability, that account for the apparent ease with which young children often appear to 'pick up' a new language relatively easily. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Daniel Madrid (University of Granada) 1. achievement. Internal factors affecting second language acquisition The meaning of things being communicated is more important for second language acquisition than their form. The stages are: 1. Second language acquisition is a process that is extraordinarily complex and requires the cooperation of multiple learning factors. David Quinto-Pozos, Associate Professor. Krashen (1988, p. Paradis, J (2011) Individual differences in child English second language acquisition: Comparing child-internal and child-external factors. The term acquisition is used to refer to picking up a second language through exposure whereas the term learning is used to refer to the conscious study of a second language. Acquisition Process. As an independent discipline, research on second language acquisition really rose to prominence at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. Week 2: Discussion of 3 major groups of factors that affect SLA. Florida is ranked 3rd in ELL population, and although Spanish is the major native. Tanner Keywords: Cultural Sensitivity, Motivation, Second Language Acquisition, Pronunciation, Phonology (2010) set out to examine some of the factors that may affect the acquisition of Spanish by students participating in a short. Babbling 3. au/theses Part of the First and Second Language Acquisition Commons Recommended Citation Latu, M. Language acquisition via AAC is different from language acquisition through typical means. Second, it dramatically restricts the potential findings of the study of gram-mar: If the investigation never looks outside of language, it can never identify any external influences on language. This study examined the predictive role of several learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading: L2 proficiency, motivation, anxiety, and mastery of strategies. Teaching a second language: Effects 2. Numerous variables thought to affect acquisition have been identified, from cognitive and affective factors such as motivation, brain lateralization, aptitude, and attitude, to external influences such as access to other speakers of the target language, output. People of different ages have different needs, competences, and cognitive skills; we might expect children of primary age to acquire much of a. Factors affecting Attitudes and Motivation in language learning. Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. University Students' Perception of Demotivating Factors in Demotivation is a relatively new topic in the field of second or foreign language acquisition which is in need of more rigorous research. From early on, social factors are influencing your child's language development 5. John is currently interested in the effects that different types of training conditions may have in the processing of an adult second and/or third language and how social factors play a role in the acquisition of a second and/or third language. Along with internal factors, external factors like curriculum, instruction, culture and status, and access to native speakers affect the acquisition of English language. This tendency, commonly referred to as negative transfer, or interference, can have an adverse effect on L2 literacy acquisition (Bialystok, 2002; Brice & Roseberry-McKibbin, 2001; Francis, 1998). These are outlined in some detail in another article on this website. Third, there may be a negative effect of non-native input such that correct acquisition of the community language is slowed down or even inhibited. language, for adults and children learning a second language and children with specific language impainnent, have implications for further understanding of possible limitations for language acquisition. We turn now to a consideration of specific personality factors in human behavior and how they relate to second language acquisition. In contrast, child-external factors occur outside the child, and include the quality and quantity of language exposure (Paradis, Genesee, & Crago, 2011). Affective Variables in Second Language Performance 2. Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics/ Canadian Linguistics Association Joint Plenary Talk, London, Ontario. Fathman’s. Individual differences in child English second language acquisition: comparing child-internal and child-external factors. For example, some key factors are learner's age, intelligence, language. Google Scholar. on first language loss and second language acquisition. Furthermore, some other factors are also essential in the success of learning a second language that can be categorized as internal (e. Many theories attempt to explain the relationship between learners' second language acquisition and their social and psychological factors. study was to investigate factors affecting teaching and learning in mother tongue in lower public primary schools in Kenya. 2 Social factors that may affect Second Language Acquisition Saville-Troike (2006:94) claims that the question of why some learners are more successful than others leads to the examination of differences in the learners themselves, such as social. Google Scholar. Having a clear understanding of communication is fundamental to language instruction, as is being familiar with the current findings of second-language acquisition. There may be several factors that combine. Silent period - stage in second language acquisition where learners do not attempt to speak. 5 Current Research 11 2. Early book reading enhances the spoken language skills of the toddlers. Language Acquisition Via AAC. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback. Level of cognitive development, social-economic status, cultural background, personality, together with age and motivation are most disputed collective factors acknowledged. fundamental theories of language acquisition cannot be totally divorced from each other, for "the objectives of second language learning are not necessarily entirely determined by native language competence inevitably serves as a foil against which to set second language learning. Internal factors include age of onset, knowledge of another language, cognitive maturity and language learning aptitude. between internal and external factors; specifically, between the an I-language Language Acquisition Second, section. factors develops. In this paper, we will talk about the age factor in second language learning from the perspective of CPH and after which some other factors concerned to affect second language learning will be given. 3%, primarily due to the Time Warner acquisition (Deal closed on June 14, 2018). Variability in learner language; 5. being able. doc), PDF File (. Early book reading enhances the spoken language skills of the toddlers. For example, some key factors are learner’s age, intelligence, language. " "Instrumental motivation is language learning for more pragmatic or practical purposes," he explains. Yaying Zhang Language Acquisition: Analysis of Factor Affecting Acquisition of English as a Second Language Language is the primary way to communicate, learn and express identity. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Daniel Madrid (University of Granada) 1. Internal factors affecting second language acquisition The meaning of things being communicated is more important for second language acquisition than their form. There are a few affective factors that can impact second language acquisition in. The effects of above mentioned factors differ in male and female learners. Methods of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Syllabus Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition Discussion After watching the Deming, New Mexico case, describe the impact of internal and external variables on language learning—for both teachers. Google Scholar. in terms of related demotivating factors, leading to school dropout, seems indispensable. The term has been unstable in its application, sometimes referring £o the acquisition of second languages in general. Spoken language: Effects of shared reading have been studied in relation to receptive and expressive language development. Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. These factors serve to modulate performance such that it may improve or decline. Two distinct sets of skills are known to define language proficiency. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback. According to the PBS Parents website, even 1-year-olds are absorbing what they hear from other people, including mom, dad, siblings or other caregivers, as they develop language skills 2 3 4. What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to speak English? Page 2: Second Language Acquisition. Theoretical models of second language acquisition, such as Krashen (1982,1985) have proposed that comprehending 'input ' in a new language is the. London: Edward Arnold. Hence, if cultural awareness promotes language acquisition, other factors contribute to this acquisition, such as the teaching methodology in the classroom, in contrast to the informal and. The social and psychological factors influence the acculturation process and the second language learning. The study employed the sequential triangulation research design within the mixed methods approach. Language learning is also the process of developing competence in language. study was to investigate factors affecting teaching and learning in mother tongue in lower public primary schools in Kenya. There are many factors which have an impact on learning a second language. David's research focuses on signed languages, and his current work focuses on developmental signed language disorders, the interaction of language and gesture, and trilingual (Spanish-ASL-English) interpretation. Copies of a 30-item Lickert-scale questionnaire, addressing internal and external factors or principle components, were distributed among about 140 postgraduate students of ELT in three universities in Iran. Factors That Affect Second Language Acquisition Second Language Acquisition (SLA) is the acquisition of a language, after knowledge of a mother tongue is formed. Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, language. So, to discover a short-cut solution to. According to Gardner, many factors influence motivation and acquisition of a second language. pdf), Text File (. A child who starts learning a second language early on will generally learn mostly (or entirely) by speaking and listening, and probably won't analyze the grammar much if at all. Screaming or Crying (0-6 months): This stage begins with the birth cry which is purely a reflex activity due to […]. An examination of the theories of language acquisition is followed by a literature study and discussion of the factors appearing to be of importance in. A presentation about 'Factors affecting second language learning'. 2 The structure of language acquisition At the most abstract level, language acquisition can be modeled as below:. What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to speak English? Page 2: Second Language Acquisition. 9, `Interlanguage in context' (222­58), deals with the relationship between SLA and sociolinguistics, tackling `external social and contextual variables' (222) affecting the input and output of a second. Personality 5. factors develops. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. On the other hand, there are internal psycholinguistic ones — that is, linguistic and psychological factors which reside in the structure of the language and the minds of the speakers. ABSTRACT: This paper is a review of the extent socio-psychological factors can affect second language learning. The additional language is called a second language (L2), even though it may. 3 What is Second Language Acquisition? In second language learning, language plays an institutional and social role in the. Individual Acquirer Differences Differ in Second Language Acquisition: Cognitive style is a term used to refer to the manner in which people perceive. The unit requires demonstration of competence in supporting bilingual pupils in language development and learning in the appropriate additional or second language. The children who participated (N=169) were between 4;10 and 7;0 years old (mean = 5;10), had between 3 to 62 months of exposure to English (mean = 20 months), and were from newcomer families to Canada. Children all learn to read at their own pace; however, there are several factors that help a child master the skills needed to read successfully. The progress is shown by the fact that the two disciplines have established themselves as areas of study not only distinct from each other, but also different from linguistic theory. Cognitive Style 6. In the past few decades researchers have identified many factors which account for some of the differences in how students learn a second language. Latu Edith Cowan University Follow this and additional works at: https://ro. Another touches the trunk and says. Stephen Krashen is known for introducing various hypotheses related to second-language acquisition, including the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the input hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the affective filter, and the natural order hypothesis. A typical student’s desire is to keep progressing and ascending to the highest educational horizons and climbing to the highest rungs of the. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. According to the PBS Parents website, even 1-year-olds are absorbing what they hear from other people, including mom, dad, siblings or other caregivers, as they develop language skills 2 3 4. The next sections explain factors that affect language learning, both internal (attention and awareness, individual differences, and the neural bases of language acquisition) and external (input, interaction, and pedagogical interventions). Let me establish one premise before I get into the nitty-gritty details. There are many topics studied by psycholinguists. A plethora of elements can influence language learning: biological factors, mother tongue, intelligence, learning surroundings, emotions, motivation and last but not least: the age factor. Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. External Factors b. As a result, the degree and direction of L1-L2 interaction varied by linguistic. Tamar Jojua, Maya Daraselia, Mzia Topuridze The Role of External Factors in the Process of Second language Acquisition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 1 ( 3 ), 213 - 237. Specific social factors that can affect second language acquisition include age, gender, social class, and ethnic identity. Learning Strategies Rubin conducted research showing that good language. Topics on language identity can relate to external and internal factors determining our language identity in relation to other people (other learners, teachers, speakers of a given language) and different situations and contexts, but they may also focus on individual features such as anxiety, self-efficacy, emotionality or the self. The additional language is called a second language (L2), even though it may. Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics/ Canadian Linguistics Association Joint Plenary Talk, London, Ontario. LANGUAGE, VOLUME 79, NUMBER 2 (2003) proaches to the study of SLA, examining the competition model, the monitor model, alternative modes of knowledge representation, and connectionism. Factors Affecting Acquisition Of English As A Second Language 1026 Words | 5 Pages. ' Recent studies of the second language acquisition, however, fail to report consistent results to support his view. Language acquisition normally proceeds in a predictable course that is evaluated as normal. Personality Factors Understanding how human beings feel and respond and believe and value is an exceedingly important aspect of a theory of second language acquisition. While many discussions about learning a second language focus on teaching methodologies, little emphasis is given to the contextual factors -- individual, social, and societal -- that affect students' learning. – Input and interaction and second language acquisition. 10), motivation for learning a second language may arise from the following situations: “•Invasion or conquest of one’s country by speakers of another language; A need or desire to contact speakers of…. Paying particular attention to methodological issues, the book goes beyond age effects to show the multiple ways in which internal and external factors may affect the learners’ processes and outcomes. These new researches and our devotion to medical disciplines 1 have made us compose an essay on the biological factors of Second Language Acquisition. They just learn differently than children, and success is more dependent on aptitude, motivation, and other factors. A number of factors can affect how quickly acquisition occurs. 1 Determine the combination of important factors in the two language acquisition system. This set of skills contains the ability to perceive and comprehend language, as well as the ability to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. During childhood, one of the most interesting phases is the Child’s language acquisition stage. A presentation about 'Factors affecting second language learning'. Personality Factors Understanding how human beings feel and respond and believe and value is an exceedingly important aspect of a theory of second language acquisition. Conversely, culture also symbolizes language and is summed in the. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. Crookes, G. Numerous variables thought to affect acquisition have been identified, from cognitive and affective factors such as motivation, brain lateralization, aptitude, and attitude, to external influences such as access to other speakers of the target language, output. Participants spoke English as a second language and fully participated in life. There is a difference between Primary Language Acquisition and Secondary Language Acquisition. contribute to find out the factors, which are responsible for student’s inelastic behavior towards study along with identifying those factors, which help a student to make progress in his studies. Situational factors are those which vary between each social interaction. Teaching a second language: Effects 2. Using such techniques as PET(1) and MRI(2), some connections have been made between affectivity and mental/ emotional processing in general, as well as second language acquisition in particular. By the time these bilinguals reach high school and college classrooms, acquisition of the HL has become more of a second language (L2) acquisition process than a first language (L1) acquisition process. Psycholinguistics and second language acquisition : Language and cognition: Language comprehension and language production: Stages and processes in both first and second language acquisition: Individual and situational factors affecting second language acquisition: Relationship between cognitive and first and second language development: 7: Apr. Firat University Journal of Social Sciences, 11 (3), 217-224. It is not only used inside of a classroom, but also outside of the classroom all the time, for instance, for employment, business or language that is used in daily newspaper. 1 Determine the combination of important factors in the two language acquisition system. GLA Factors affecting SLA success Topic 4: Factors affecting L2 learning Attitudinal ob A. Instrumental motivation alongside this characterises second language acquisition. The process of second language acquisition is complex and unique for each student. O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Lee, Jean Milcham, and Rita Rutkowski Weber (Eds. Chapter 3 gives a background on current ESL pedagogy followed by a description of the linguistic mimicry approach used in this research in Chapter 4. Second-language (L2) acquisition may begin at almost any age or life stage. According to Gardner, many factors influence motivation and acquisition of a second language. Motivation and Attitude 4. 4 Previous Research 4 1. Bardovi-Harlig, The Interaction of Pedagogy and Natural Sequences in the Acquisition of Tense and Aspect. Acquiring ASL or written English is like any other language acquisition--there are a lot of external factors at play. Let's look at some of the individual factors affecting second language Academic Factors. This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. 2 Speaking 10 2. Phonation and vocabulary development: The language skills are found to be more advanced in children who shared reading experiences from 14 months of age. In the past few decades, linguists were more focus on the cognitive aspects also known as the psycholinguistic which studies the internal factors of second language acquisition. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. It is important for teachers to understand the second language acquisition process, to recognize possible characteristics associated with LD, and to look at the quality of instruction to determine whether. In this regard, the present study was an attempt to investigate demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language in an Iranian. Internal/ Individual B. The external factors, such as the conditions in which the. There is one drawback of language learning as an adult: research indicates that you might not be able to master an authentic accent. 9, `Interlanguage in context' (222­58), deals with the relationship between SLA and sociolinguistics, tackling `external social and contextual variables' (222) affecting the input and output of a second. Before acquiring AAC, children likely had (a) reduced means of expression and ability to control communication interactions and (b) fewer opportunities for exploring and interacting with their environment. This categorization includes external, internal and individual factors. 320 Applied Research on English Language, V. Krashen (1981) mentions these personality factors as affecting learners’ affective filters, stating that a confident, secure and outgoing person who lacks anxiety would have low affective filters, thereby allowing comprehensible input to reach the language acquisition device, resulting in acquisition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center. John Schumann' s work in this area has singled out one section of the temporal lobes of the human brain, the amygdala , as a major player in the. If there is a critical period for second language acquisition, then logically there is also one for first language acquisition, and the answers to questions about language processing take a clear direction. parenting and second language acquisition (SLA), enriching our understanding of parental influence on the bilingual language development of the youngest of second language learners. Let's look at some of the individual factors affecting second language Academic Factors. Particular attention is paid to learning context as an affecting factor via an exploration of which of the other factors predict CS effectiveness development in each of the contexts under study. These factors serve to modulate performance such that it may improve or decline. The Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition Introduction There are many factors that affect second language acquisition (SLA). Spoken language: Effects of shared reading have been studied in relation to receptive and expressive language development. stories to find further insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of English as a second language. Chikamatsu, N. If we consider the neurological factors involved in language learning, we reveal that limitations to language acquisition and retention can and do exist. The next sections explain factors that affect language learning, both internal (attention and awareness, individual differences, and the neural bases of language acquisition) and external (input, interaction, and pedagogical interventions). in terms of related demotivating factors, leading to school dropout, seems indispensable. There are many internal and external factors especially age, motivation, input etc which have great impact on second language learning. External a. External factors (the effects of different kinds of input, and on the impact of the social context. If turning our focus to great literary works, it is not difficult for readers to find that many British and American writers absorb a large amount of nutrients from the Bible, which is one of the three columns that support the canopy of western culture. These individual, social, and societal factors can be considered from the perspective of the language, the learner, and the learning process. This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. Situational factors are those which vary between each social interaction. Paying particular attention to methodological issues, the book goes beyond age effects to show the multiple ways in which internal and external factors may affect the learners’ processes and outcomes. Thinking on the positive factors that affect second language learners, I can mention the love and appreciation that some students demonstrate towards a second language. It is pronounced with a short A, as in apple, rather than the "uh" sound found in amount and affect when used as a verb. Cummins (1984) described the interplay between everyday language skills and more advanced communication skills. Language development and literacy This topic aims to help understand the close link between learning to talk and learning to read, their importance in children’s intellectual development, the learning mechanisms involved and the external factors that influence them, and signs that could indicate a learning disability. Second language acquisition is a process that is extraordinarily complex and requires the cooperation of multiple learning factors. The Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition was adopted. ESL-223N Various factors basically in Ahmadi’s personality, his family and his environment affect his ability to learn English as a second language, that is, internal and external factors. Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy. , study abroad settings, technology. But there comes a stage when the child learns a new language which may be the second or third language. In this post Victoria Murphy, Professor of Applied Linguistics and author of Second language learning in the early school years: Trends and Contexts, introduces her forthcoming webinar on the subject and looks at other factors that influence L2 learning in classroom-based contexts. John Schumann' s work in this area has singled out one section of the temporal lobes of the human brain, the amygdala , as a major player in the. To facilitate language learning, students’ initial errors in developing language should be allowed and corrected with a sympathy and tact. 60-69 10 p. It is important for teachers to understand the second language acquisition process, to recognize possible characteristics associated with LD, and to look at the quality of instruction to determine whether. There are many internal and external factors especially age, motivation, input etc which have great impact on second language learning. and recommended that there are three main factors, which concern and influence the Second Language Acquisition; These three factors are age, personality, and motivation. Chikamatsu, N. This thesis summarizes foreign and domestic researches' key issues. Ahead of Print. There may be several factors that combine. Second language (L2) related to a language that is commonly used in the country of learner's residence. In the past few decades, linguists were more focus on the cognitive aspects also known as the psycholinguistic which studies the internal factors of second language acquisition. What do I mean by that? Deaf people, like many other se. The stages are: 1. Theoretical models of second language acquisition, such as Krashen (1982,1985) have proposed that comprehending 'input ' in a new language is the. The Different Factors of Individual Language Learners in Second Language Acquisition Essay Sample. KEYWORDS: Internal factors, external factors, SLA INTRODUCTION Learning a second or foreign language is not an easy matter to discuss, because it does not only require to know vocabulary and grammar of a language being acquired, but also knowledge about the context. Second-language (L2) acquisition may begin at almost any age or life stage. This paper aims to mention some of the factors which are under categorization of the internal/external in second language acquisition (SLA). Use the following code: S = factors primarily in the student F = factors primarily in the family E = factors primarily. – Pragmatic aspects of learner language. The study mainly seeks to identify dropout factors from teachers and experts’ perspectives. In the literature of child language acquisition there are cases in which infants, deprived of linguistic input, invent a rudimentary grammar not attributable only to the external factors. High stakes testing measures literacy among all. III: Explaining second language acquisition: external factors. Schmidt (Eds. ABSTRACT: This paper is a review of the extent socio-psychological factors can affect second language learning. Monitor It is that part of the learner’s internal system which controls conscious linguistic processing. language, for adults and children learning a second language and children with specific language impainnent, have implications for further understanding of possible limitations for language acquisition. , peer pressure, language input) and internal (e. Second language (L2) related to a language that is commonly used in the country of learner's residence. demonstrating knowledge of cognitive and physical variables that affect an English Language Learner's second language acquisition (e. Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Getting Started with English Language Learners. A review of the available evidence indicates that the natural process of second language acquisition, premature transition to English only instruction, and the lack of primary or native language instruction in the upper grades, are all significant factors in contributing to STUDENT's current academic delays. Learning a second language can have a positive effect on the brain, even if it is taken up in adulthood, a University of Edinburgh study suggests. Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition - Free download as Word Doc (. educators are involved with affect in language learning. The information on this page is based on summaries of research into learner variables (internal factors) in second language acquisition in the following resources: Lightbown, Patsy M. learning style, which affect children’s language learning (King & Mackey, 2007). Croteau, Second Language Acquisition of Relative Clause Structures by Learners of Italian. So this article is to analyze the factors to increase the learners’ motivation of English learning in the classroom. 7% and the impact of acquisitions(1). Language development and literacy This topic aims to help understand the close link between learning to talk and learning to read, their importance in children’s intellectual development, the learning mechanisms involved and the external factors that influence them, and signs that could indicate a learning disability. xvii + 326 ISBN 0-8058-1687-9 (cloth) US $69. The process of second language acquisition is complex and unique for each student. What perspectives exist from which to view acquisition? What internal constraints and external factors shape acquisition? What are the properties of interlanguage systems? This comprehensive 31-chapter handbook is an authoritative survey of second language acquisition (SLA). Gorman,[43] did a study on patterns of language use among Kenyan children in form one and their parents. Perspective on Second Language Teaching – A Complex Socio-Cultural Phenomenon Bairagi Patra (Ph. The stages are: 1. Unit introduction This unit focuses on the role of learning support staff who support bilingual pupils. Underdevelopment of any of the biological systems, or damage or disruptions to the systems can and will impede the acquisition process of a language, be it L1 or L2. The most debatable is-sue in this context is “How do successful language learners learn?”. Its use is not restricted to business and marketing. First, there are differences in learning traits such as. In line with Clark’s (2003) view that both social factors and cognitive status are crucial in early language acquisition, the current. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40 (2). On the other hand, there are internal psycholinguistic ones — that is, linguistic and psychological factors which reside in the structure of the language and the minds of the speakers. Second-language (L2) acquisition may begin at almost any age or life stage. I mean, think about it. Countermeasures. External factors can be broken down into social external and individual external factors. doc), PDF File (. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. Other Psychological Factors that Can Influence L2 Acquisition: Other Psychological Factors that Can Influence L2 Acquisition In addition to studying the affective factors ( Motivation, anxiety, a ptitude)that can impact second language acquisition, psycholinguists study several other factors that have an effect on learning a second language. internal and external factors which affect English as second language learning in the context of Pakistani. Kuhl PK, Tsao FM, and Liu HM. These factors are language, language distance, native language proficiency, knowledge of the second language, dialect and register, language status, language attitudes, the learner, diverse needs, diverse goals , peer groups , role models, home support the learning process, learning styles, motivation and classroom interaction and quality of. educators are involved with affect in language learning. A volume on second-language acquisition theory and pedagogy is, at the same time, a mark of progress and a bit of an anomaly. Many factors will influence the development of a second (or third) language such as age at arrival, first language proficiency, type of instruction including contextualized (i. This study investigated the effects of internal and external factors on learning English as a foreign language from Iranian EFL learners' points of view. The literature supports. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback. There are many factors which influence the second language acquisition. Based on the results of the previous research about affects in second language acquisition, the study finds that junior high school students have the following negative affective factors such as boredom, anxiety, hopelessness, inhibition and low self-confidence in their English learning. From early on, social factors are influencing your child's language development 5. This essay Language Acquisition and Various Influences on Student Learning talks that language development in human beings occurs as a biologically controlled behavior in StudentShare Our website is a unique platform where students can share their papers in a matter of giving an example of the work to be done. Key Issues in Second Language Acquisition since the 1990s Shuangshuang Wang Shandong Normal University, Jinan, China Abstract—The research field of the second language acquisition has been increasingly widened in recent years, and emerged various kinds of new theories. Considering the second language learning, some language learners learn new language more quickly while others may not. Cummins (1984) described the interplay between everyday language skills and more advanced communication skills. As an independent discipline, research on second language acquisition really rose to prominence at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. According to the PBS Parents website, even 1-year-olds are absorbing what they hear from other people, including mom, dad, siblings or other caregivers, as they develop language skills 2 3 4. – Input and interaction and second language acquisition. Affective factors are the emotions and attitudes people have about themselves or the surrounding environment. ERIC Development Team www. Identify the external factors that discourage Saudi PYP students in the English language classroom. It concludes by looking at two pedagogical applications: processing instruction and content based. The classroom factors are more important in affecting Chinese learners’ motivation and it is easier to be manipulated and modified. Buy Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics: The Cambridge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (Paperback) at Walmart. External Factors b. To get an idea of how immersed a child is in language acquisition, compare the average 3,640 hours a year a preschooler spends practicing a first language with the 180 hours per year averaged by a college student taking a second language in the classroom. Available as an eBook. For example, some key factors are learner’s age, intelligence, language. Determine whether each factor is related mainly to the student, to the family or to the environment of the second culture. III: Explaining second language acquisition: external factors. Summary of Five Hypotheses about Second Language Acquisition Second language acquisition theory seeks to quantify how and by what processes individuals acquire a second language. An elephant is like a column’. Child language acquisition is a very complex process, this process is not only affected by internal factors, such as intelligence, innate language ability and thinking ability, but also has close relation with the external factors of children's life, such as living environment, social cultures, etc. More relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) are four other factors: motivation, opportunity, environment, and personality. Language planning in Africa has to take place against the background of several factors, including multilingualism, the colonial legacy, the role of education as an agent of social change, high incidence of illiteracy, and concerns for communication, national integration and development (Bamgbose, 2000: 99) Thereforelearners of English language as a second language are mostly faced with the. ), Motivation and second language acquisition (Technical Report No. trates the study of language on grammar, ignoring such areas as lexis, fluency, idiomaticity, pragmatics and discourse. Although interactionists have also been criticized as not precisely specifying the role of external and internal factors in language development, their contributions worth the effort of a careful scrutiny which certainly proves useful in yielding insights for second language teaching and learning. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. FACTORS AFFECTING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUSITION H. By external I mean factors that are not so much characteristic of the psychological/cognitive make up of the learner as they are of the surrounding environment. Hispanic Linguistics Second Language Acquisition [email protected] External factors can be broken down into social external and individual external factors. demonstrating knowledge of cognitive and physical variables that affect an English Language Learner's second language acquisition (e. The study employed the sequential triangulation research design within the mixed methods approach. The term second language is used to describe any language whose acquisition starts after early childhood (including what may be the third or subsequent language learned). pdf), Text File (. The most universally accepted principle of SLA is the need for comprehensible input (CI) and the confirmation that without CI, acquisition is not possible. The study showed that there was a greater influence from socioeconomic factors. Language external and language internal factors in the acquisition of gender: the case of Albanian-Greek and English-Greek bilingual children. Motivation is something difficult to talk about, there are many external factors that influence the desire of a student to improve his linguistic skills. According to the PBS Parents website, even 1-year-olds are absorbing what they hear from other people, including mom, dad, siblings or other caregivers, as they develop language skills 2 3 4. When used as a noun, "affect" refers to the external display of one's emotions or moods. What do teachers need to know about students who are learning to speak English? Page 2: Second Language Acquisition. Throughout the past few decades, tremendous progress has been made in gaining a better understanding of second language acquisition processes, as well as the cross-linguistics factors which might affect this process. au/theses Part of the First and Second Language Acquisition Commons Recommended Citation Latu, M. Learners of English as a Second Language in Australia: Their Perceptions of Learning Environment and Factors Affecting Their Motivation Matsumoto, M. Looking at existing bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition literature, we will understand some of the factors that affect second language learning. External factors (the effects of different kinds of input, and on the impact of the social context. First Language Acquisition 3 2 Chomsky's Innateness Hypothesis 2. Early book reading enhances the spoken language skills of the toddlers. As second or third language learning. Declines in revenues from legacy wireline services, Vrio, domestic video and wireless equipment were more than offset by the addition of. factors in the acquisition of English as a second language are age, intelligence, the amount of English spoken at home, pupil perception of parental support and first language acquisition. and recommended that there are three main factors, which concern and influence the Second Language Acquisition; These three factors are age, personality, and motivation. , Mar 2018 , In : Linguistics and Literature Studies. A presentation about 'Factors affecting second language learning'. au/theses Part of the First and Second Language Acquisition Commons Recommended Citation Latu, M. This study focuses on investigating the factors affecting performance of 3rd and 4th year college students equal to Europeans standard K-12 and K-14. 0 million driven by organic growth of 2. by Judie Haynes. It is important for teachers to understand the second language acquisition process, to recognize possible characteristics associated with LD, and to look at the quality of instruction to determine whether. Individual Factors. Mastering a language could take even decades. Internal factors affecting second language acquisition The meaning of things being communicated is more important for second language acquisition than their form. Core Course Descriptions Second Language Acquisition: Theories and Research (82-783) [9 units] This course introduces students to the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) in order to provide them with an understanding of the way in which second languages are learned and acquired. Since the factors like physical, psychology, exhaustion, family factors, school factors, social factor, etc. There have been numerous attempts to classify the factors that contribute or positively affect second language acquisition. AT&T's consolidated revenues for the second quarter totaled $45. ISBN: 9781107007710 1107007712: OCLC Number: 828413231: Description: xiv, 823 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm. between internal and external factors; specifically, between the an I-language Language Acquisition Second, section. specified minimal exposure to language. , study abroad settings, technology. Spoken language: Effects of shared reading have been studied in relation to receptive and expressive language development. Currently, researchers adopt multiple perspectives in the analysis of learner language, all of them providing different but complementary answers to the understanding of oral and written data produced by young and older learners in different settings. Common affective factors that influence acquisition are anxiety, personality, social attitudes, and motivation. Schumann’s Acculturation Theory as presented in The Pidginization Process: A Model for Second Language Acquisition (1978) predicts that the degree of a learner’s success in second language (L2) acquisition depends upon the learner’s degree of acculturation. So this article is to analyze the factors to increase the learners’ motivation of English learning in the classroom. Language learning requires a formal knowledge of explicit rules. Topics on language identity can relate to external and internal factors determining our language identity in relation to other people (other learners, teachers, speakers of a given language) and different situations and contexts, but they may also focus on individual features such as anxiety, self-efficacy, emotionality or the self. factors in the acquisition of English as a second language are age, intelligence, the amount of English spoken at home, pupil perception of parental support and first language acquisition. It is the need to continue conquering the unknown and the little known. Second language acquisition is a process that is extraordinarily complex and requires the cooperation of multiple learning factors. This digest discusses the contextual factors that affect learning a second language, with a particular focus on how these factors affect adolescent learners of English as a second language. Week 2: Discussion of 3 major groups of factors that affect SLA. acquisition as standard, native input. What perspectives exist from which to view acquisition? What internal constraints and external factors shape acquisition? What are the properties of interlanguage systems? This comprehensive 31-chapter handbook is an authoritative survey of second language acquisition (SLA). Language Education Policy Planning in Malaysia: Concern for. internal and external factors which affect English as second language learning in the context of Pakistani. External factors (the effects of different kinds of input, and on the impact of the social context. Anecdote abounds. Numerous variables thought to affect acquisition have been identified, from cognitive and affective factors such as motivation, brain lateralization, aptitude, and attitude, to external influences such as access to other speakers of the target language, output. An older person. Second, non-native input may support bilingual language acquisition, but to a lesser extent that native input does. There is a general agreement among researchers that learners must be engaged in decoding and encoding messages in the second language for the conditions to be right for second. Program: 10:00-10:50: The interplay of cognitive, linguistic and instructional factors in early language acquisition. Individual Acquirer Differences Differ in Second Language Acquisition: Cognitive style is a term used to refer to the manner in which people perceive. This paper aims to mention some of the factors which are under categorization of the internal/external in second language acquisition (SLA). A volume on second-language acquisition theory and pedagogy is, at the same time, a mark of progress and a bit of an anomaly. In the past few decades researchers have identified many factors which account for some of the differences in how students learn a second language. Innate is something which is already there in mind since birth. Schmidt (Eds. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback. Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition 1540 Words | 7 Pages. The study showed that there was a greater influence from socioeconomic factors. The next sections explain factors that affect language learning, both internal (attention and awareness, individual differences, and the neural bases of language acquisition) and external (input, interaction, and pedagogical interventions). Social influences may help both humans and animals to overcome inhibitions, and to achieve exceptional learning in vocal communication processes [34]. The stages are: 1. Hypothesis: 1. Rodina, Yulia, Tanja Kupisch, Natalia Meir, Natalia Mitrofanova, Olga Urek & Marit Westergaard. By knowing the stages of language acquisition and stage-appropriate questions, you can engage students at the correct level of discourse. These perspectives are discussed as they relate to learning any second language, with a particular focus on how they affect adolescent learners of English. What internal constraints and external factors shape acquisition? What are the properties of interlanguage systems? This comprehensive 31-chapter handbook is an authoritative survey of second language acquisition (SLA). The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. Language development and literacy This topic aims to help understand the close link between learning to talk and learning to read, their importance in children’s intellectual development, the learning mechanisms involved and the external factors that influence them, and signs that could indicate a learning disability. New orientations in language learning motivation: Towards a model of intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations and motivation. Early language acquisition: Cracking the speech code. , how good his memory is etc) or external factors such as his environment (e. Language is inextricably. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. important factor in second language acquisition, and language learning in a more general sense, it is by no means the only factor that explains language learning success of some people or the failure of others. Phonation and vocabulary development: The language skills are found to be more advanced in children who shared reading experiences from 14 months of age. 100(15):9096-101. Language involves sounds rather than the meaning of words. They have also been described as strong predictors for second language acquisition. Language acquisition is obviously the results of multiple factors, and motivation is one of them. org) Kagoshima University, Japan Abstract This paper puts forth a model to enhance understanding of second language acquisition (SLA) by integrating factors from acculturation research. Stephen Krashen is known for introducing various hypotheses related to second-language acquisition, including the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the input hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the affective filter, and the natural order hypothesis. MOTIVATION A person's motivation behind learning a second language (L2) and the views she holds regarding the L2-speaking community both come into play in speed of SLA and degree of proficiency achieved. Week 2: Discussion of 3 major groups of factors that affect SLA. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in physiology and psychology. The pronunciation of the word "affect" is slightly different when used as a noun. Two distinct sets of skills are known to define language proficiency. FACTORS AFFECTING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Learning is the process of acquiring the knowledge and skill in specific field. Motivational teaching strategies such as these can easily increase language learners' motivation levels. learning something. LANGUAGE, VOLUME 79, NUMBER 2 (2003) proaches to the study of SLA, examining the competition model, the monitor model, alternative modes of knowledge representation, and connectionism. Throughout the past few decades, tremendous progress has been made in gaining a better understanding of second language acquisition processes, as well as the cross-linguistics factors which might affect this process. L2 acquisition can be defined as the way in which people learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside or outside of a classroom, and second language acquisition (SLA) as the study of this. This book makes a major contribution to the field of instructed second language learning. This is similar to first language acquisition in that there appears to be some universal tendency in the acquisition process. This set of skills contains the ability to perceive and comprehend language, as well as the ability to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Students, who learn a second language in order to achieve their school graduation requirement or just being able to read publications in this language. Second language acquisition. Many factors will influence the development of a second (or third) language such as age at arrival, first language proficiency, type of instruction including contextualized (i. acquisition as standard, native input. factors that the child brings with them when leaning a second language. Program: 10:00-10:50: The interplay of cognitive, linguistic and instructional factors in early language acquisition. In contrast, child-external factors occur outside the child, and include the quality and quantity of language exposure (Paradis, Genesee, & Crago, 2011). To learn more about the unique learning environment at Whitby, schedule a tour or download our guide to the difference between an N8 and K12 education. Second language acquisition is the way or the process people learn the other language after their mother tongue (first language) has already learned. Check the ones you think are true. Cummins (1984) described the interplay between everyday language skills and more advanced communication skills. According to Schumman the. There is a general agreement among researchers that learners must be engaged in decoding and encoding messages in the second language for the conditions to be right for second. Chapter Two Current Survey Research 12 2. Education in Second Languages : An overview of theory and research in second language acquisition, including developmental patterns, factors affecting how second languages are learned, and relevance for teachers in terms of applications to the classroom context. Factors That Affect Second Language Acquisition Second Language Acquisition (SLA) is the acquisition of a language, after knowledge of a mother tongue is formed. Individual Acquirer Differences Differ in Second Language Acquisition: Cognitive style is a term used to refer to the manner in which people perceive. 1 Methods and Procedures 12 2. ED444381 2000-09-00 Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition. The Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition was adopted. More relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) are four other factors: motivation, opportunity, environment, and personality. An elephant is like a column'. Nature Neuroscience 5: 831-843. APLNG 482 Introduction to Applied Linguistics (3) (IL)This is a survey course concerned with the application of theories of language to issues in the areas of psycholinguistics, philosophy of language, anthropological linguistics, sociolinguistics, bi/multilingualism, second language acquisition, and second language teaching. 7%, excluding discrete tax benefit items of $9. Learning Strategies Rubin conducted research showing that good language. There are four sections, external influences, individual differences, language acquisition contexts, and outcomes. Index Terms—Language Egocentrism (LE), Language Differentiation (LD), language learning mechanics, second language acquisition, Piaget I. , cognitive development, cognitive learning style, age) and identifying instructional strategies that are developmentally appropriate, promote critical thinking and problem solving, and address each student's. 1 summarizes the five stages of language acquisition and shows some appropriate prompts and sample questions to use for each stage of second language acquisition. Personality According to research done by Beebe in 1983 shows that moderate risk taking is linked to achievement, while research done by Scovel in 1978 shows that moderate anxiety can be facilitating. One touches a leg and says, ‘Ah, ha. Particularly. Kuhl PK, Tsao FM, and Liu HM. As Jonassen and Grabowski (1993:3) explain, several factors contribute to. When dealing with a topic as varied as the affective aspects of second and foreign language learning, we can recall the well-known fable of the blind men who come across an elephant. It is a vital factor which influence the second language. Factors affecting second language communication strategies use and development. Yes, there are certain 'external factors influencing second language acquisition', for instance, students' involvement in certain projects considering studying via translating. Factors affecting the impact of an earthquake Distance from the epicentre - the effects of an earthquake are more severe at its centre. Some of the. Language development and literacy This topic aims to help understand the close link between learning to talk and learning to read, their importance in children's intellectual development, the learning mechanisms involved and the external factors that influence them, and signs that could indicate a learning disability. Namita Sharma Research Paper Dr. Considering all variables relating to second or foreign language learning simultaneously would be an extremely difficult task. 3 discusses six partially overlapping positions on the relation between transfer and Universal Grammar in second language acquisition.